Jump to main content

In the early 1990's, Drs. Mark Lovell and Joseph Maroon developed the ImPACT Test – now the standard tool used in comprehensive clinical management of concussions for athletes

ImPACT Founders

ImPACT Applications, Inc., is based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and was co-founded by Mark Lovell, Ph.D., Joseph Maroon, M.D., and Michael (Micky) Collins, Ph.D. in 2002. The science behind ImPACT was developed in response to requests for neurocognitive testing from the NFL to help determine safe return to play. The ImPACT Concussion Management Model was first put into use in 1997. Today, ImPACT is constantly updating products, services and its training programs by integrating new technologies, input from experts and users, and ongoing research on concussion rehabilitation methods.

Mark Lovell, Ph.D.

Mark R. Lovell, Ph.D., is internationally recognized as a concussion expert for his development of innovative neurocognitive testing programs and ground breaking research. Dr. Lovell served as the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of ImPACT Applications from 2002 through 2013, and currently serves as Chairman of the Board and Chief Scientific Officer. In the early 1990's he developed the ImPACT® Test which is the first, most-widely used and most scientifically validated computerized concussion evaluation system. The ImPACT Test has become an internationally used tool in the comprehensive clinical management of concussions. Dr. Lovell's expertise led to his development and direction of the first league wide neuropsychological testing programs for the National Football League (NFL) and National Hockey League (NHL). Dr. Lovell remains a neuropsychological consultant for several organizations throughout the world including, but not limited to, the NFL Players Association, NHL, Irish Rugby, USA Women's Olympic Hockey team, World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE) and the US Ski and Snowboard team.

In 2000 Dr. Lovell became the founding director of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center's (UPMC) Sports Medicine Concussion Program. Dr. Lovell's pioneering approach to concussion management attracted professional athletes from around the world to the UPMC Concussion Program. Until his retirement from clinical practice in 2011, Dr. Lovell directed the UPMC program, which has been regarded as the first and largest program of its kind.

Dr. Lovell is a leader in concussion research, publishing over 100 peer-reviewed articles, authoring or co-authoring nine textbooks and writing over 40 book chapters. He is an instrumental force in spreading concussion education and awareness among the public and medical community. Dr. Lovell served as a panel member for the Center for Disease Control's Coaches Toolkit and has trained thousands of medical professionals on neurocognitive testing and concussion management. Dr. Lovell's contributions to the neuropsychological community have allowed him to be a frequent presenter at professional meetings internationally and serve as a member of the Vienna and Prague International Consensus Conference on Sports-Related Concussion.

His vast accomplishments include the Council of Brain Injury Award for Excellence, National Concussion Summit Excellence in Safety Award, USA Hockey Excellence in Safety Award, American Board of Professional Neuropsychology Distinguished Clinical Neuropsychologist Award and most recently his alma mater, Northern Michigan University, awarded him with an Honorary Doctor of Science degree for his pioneering work in managing sports concussions.

Dr. Lovell is a member of various professional and scientific organizations including the International Neuropsychological Society, American Psychological Association and North American Brain Injury Association. In addition to being a member of several prestigious organizations, Dr. Lovell has been a reviewer for over 15 professional journals and is currently serving as an editorial board member for several different journals.

Joseph Maroon, M.D.

Joseph Maroon, MD, FACS is professor and Vice Chairman of the Department of Neurological Surgery and Heindl Scholar in Neurosciences at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. He is regarded as a premier specialist in the surgical treatment of injuries and diseases of the brain and spine, particularly with microscopic and minimally invasive procedures. His research into brain tumors, concussions and diseases of the spine has led to many innovative techniques for diagnosing and treating these disorders. Dr. Maroon has published over 270 papers and is on the editorial boards of Surgical Neurology International, The Physician and Sportsmedicine, and Neurological Research. He is consistently listed in America's Best Doctors and he has an international patient clientele.

He has been the team neurosurgeon for the Pittsburgh Steelers since 1981 and the medical director for World Wrestling Entertainment Corporation since 2006. He has successfully performed surgery on numerous professional and elite athletes with potentially career ending spine injuries. He has also served on the National Football League's Head, Neck and Spine Committee since 2007.

Along with Mark Lovell, Ph.D., in the early 1990's Dr. Maroon co-developed ImPACT® (Immediate Post Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing); the first, most-widely used and most scientifically validated computerized concussion evaluation system.

As an avid athlete himself, he has completed over 70 triathlons, seven of these Ironman distance races in Hawaii, Europe, New Zealand and Canada. Dr. Maroon is frequently quoted as an expert source by national media including the New York Times, USA Today, Associated Press, ESPN, Sports Illustrated and ABC News Nightline.

Micky Collins, Ph.D.

Michael "Micky" Collins, Ph.D., is an internationally renowned expert in sports-related concussion. A leading clinician and researcher, Dr. Collins serves as the clinical and executive director and a founding member of the UPMC Sports Medicine Concussion Program. Established in 2000, it was the first program of its kind; more than a decade later, it remains the largest research and clinical program focused on the assessment, treatment, rehabilitation, research and education of sports-related mild traumatic brain injury in athletes of all levels.

Dr. Collins' expertise attracts elite and professional athletes from around the world seeking the comprehensive care he provides and the multidisciplinary approach he helped to introduce. On a daily basis, Dr. Collins and his UPMC program colleagues see dozens of patients – embodying youth, high-school, collegiate and pro athletes -- with concerns about safe return to play and return to school/work following treatment and rehabilitation.

Besides his extensive clinical experience, Dr. Collins also has been a lead author and investigator on numerous groundbreaking studies of high-school and college athletes published in JAMA, Neurosurgery, American Journal of Sports Medicine and Pediatrics, among others. He has been the lead author or co-author on more than 60 peer-reviewed research articles in medical journals and has delivered more than 250 presentations at national and international scientific meetings. National and local media often interview him as an expert source.

Dr. Collins has been an instrumental source across the nation in developing concussion-management policy in youth sports, return-to-play laws and the Centers for Disease Control's concussion toolkit. He is a co-founder of ImPACT® (Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing). As a result, he is a leader in educating and implementing the proper usage of such baseline and post-injury neurocognitive testing as one tool to help determine an injury's severity and recovery for safe return to play.

In addition to training thousands of physicians and certified athletic trainers in the diagnosis and management of sports-related concussion, he advises numerous athletic organizations and teams – including several major-college programs (Florida, Florida State, Louisiana State and Michigan State to name a few), the NFL Steelers, the NHL Penguins, numerous MLB clubs, MLB Umpires, USA Rugby and Cirque De Soleil. He also serves as a consultant or on the editorial board of such publications as Brain Injury Professional, Journal of Athletic Training and the Journal of Sports Neurology, where he is Associate Editor.

A graduate of the University of Southern Maine with a bachelor's degree in psychology and biology in 1991, Dr. Collins earned a master's degree in psychology in 1995 and doctorate degree in clinical psychology in 1998 at Michigan State University. Among numerous national and international honors over the past decade, Dr. Collins in 2010 received the National Council on Brain Injury annual award for outstanding research and advocacy. In 2009, he was bestowed the Kenneth L. Knight Award for outstanding research. An athlete himself, Dr. Collins played for the University of Southern Maine in the 1989 NCAA Baseball College World Series and trained to run in the 2012 Pittsburgh Marathon.